Detailed explanation of tanker structure performance

A tanker is a tank-shaped transportation vehicle used to transport various liquids, liquefied gases and powdered goods, including gasoline, crude oil, various viscous oils, vegetable oils, liquid ammonia, alcohol, water, and various acids. Alkali liquids, cement lead oxide powder, etc., tank trucks occupy a very important position in transportation, accounting for about 18% of the total number of trucks.

Classification

According to the mode of transportation, tank cars can be divided into two categories: railway tank cars and road tank cars.
Road transportation tankers can be divided into oil tankers, steam tankers, liquid tankers, cement bulk carrier, cement mixing tankers, and fuel tankers according to their uses.

Tanker structure

Although there are many types of tanker trucks, they all have an overall bearing structure. The body of most tankers is composed of two parts: the tank body and the underframe.

tank truck

Tanker tank body introduction

The tank body of the tanker is a horizontal cylinder structure, and the cylinder part is welded by the upper plate, the bottom plate and the end plate. The upper plate is made of 9mm thick steel plate rolled into road tank models. The bottom plate is made of 11mm thick steel plate due to greater force. The bottom plate accounts for about 1/4 of the circumference of the full cylinder. The end plate thickness is 11mm steel plate. Press into a spherical convex panel with a transitional arc part.

Generally, the spherical radius of the tank end plate is about 3500mm, and the transition radius is 100mm. When the tank plate is made of ordinary low-alloy steel, the thickness of the steel plate is correspondingly 8mm and 10mm. The diameter of the tank increases with the increase in volume. The inner diameter of a tank with a volume of 30 cubic meters is 2100 mm; a tank with a volume of 50 cubic meters is 2600 mm; and a tank with a volume of 60 cubic meters is 2800 mm.

However, due to the existence of the air bag, the manufacturing process is more complicated, and it is not convenient to clean the tank body. In addition, practice has proved that when the liquid is not full, the impact on the end plate of the tank is not so significant, so the air bag is eliminated in the tank trucks now produced. In order to ensure that the total volume of the tank remains unchanged, the length of the tank is lengthened to make up for this part of the volume of the air bag.

At this time, there is a ruler in the tank to limit the amount of oil carried, leaving an empty volume for liquid expansion, and avoiding overflow when the liquid expands.

tank truck

Tanker chassis

Because the tank itself has great rigidity, the weight of the liquid in the tank is mainly borne by the tank body, and then transmitted to the steering tank frame through the bracket and bolster, so the tank frame mainly bears the horizontal longitudinal traction impact. The center beam is generally made of two channel steels. The central part is covered with an upper cover plate with a thickness of 8 mm. The cover plate is welded with a tank body lower saddle plate. The center of the cover plate is provided with an oil trap hole or an oil drain valve hole. There are drainage pipe holes at both ends (when there is a heating jacket), and a reinforced lower cover plate is welded on the part of the center beam near the core plate. The corbel generally uses a box-shaped section, on which a tank bracket is mounted, which is composed of a web-shaped plate and a skid. The web-shaped plate is riveted or welded to the steel plate of the corbel to be molded and welded to form a groove shape. On the end beams and corbels, so that the tank body is supported on it by skids. The end beams are molded and welded into a trough shape from steel plates with a thickness of 6 mm. There are side beams between the end beams and the corbels, which are mainly used to enhance the rigidity of the ends and transfer part of the longitudinal force to the corbels. In addition, the underframe is also equipped with railings, walking boards, handrails, and pedals.

tank truck

Bottomless tanker

Since the tank body of the tanker is an integral cylindrical structure with greater strength and rigidity, the tank body can not only bear the weight of the liquid, but also the tanker can bear the longitudinal force acting on the tanker without the need for an underframe. There are no middle beams, side beams and cross beams between the two corbels. The tank body is welded to the traction beam and the corbel beams. The connection device between the tank body and the underframe is eliminated, and there is no need for jamming. The tank car has its own weight and can give full play to the load-bearing role of the tank metal material.

The difference between the tank body of the tank car without a chassis and the tank body of the tank car with a chassis is the supporting part at both ends. The traction beam and the corbel beam of the tank car without a chassis are connected with the tank body by welding to transmit the longitudinal force.